Visual techniques such as smoke signalsbeacon fireshydraulic telegraphsship flags and semaphore lines were the earliest forms of optical communication. Distress flares are still used by mariners in emergencies, while lighthouses and navigation lights are used to communicate navigation hazards.
The heliograph uses a mirror to reflect sunlight to a distant observer. Naval ships often use signal lamps and Morse code in a similar way. Aircraft pilots often use visual approach slope indicator VASI projected light systems to land safely, especially at night.
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Military aircraft landing on an aircraft carrier use a similar system to land correctly on a carrier deck. The coloured light system communicates the aircraft's height relative to a standard landing glideslope.
As well, airport control towers still use Aldis lamps to transmit instructions to aircraft whose radios have failed. In the present day a variety of electronic systems optically transmit and receive information carried by pulses of light.
Fiber-optic communication cables are now employed to send the great majority of the electronic data and long distance telephone calls that are not conveyed by either radioterrestrial microwave or satellite.
Free-space optical communications are also used every day in various applications. Main article: Semaphore line A replica of one of Chappe's semaphore towers 18th century. A 'semaphore telegraph'also called a ' semaphore line', 'optical telegraph', 'shutter telegraph chain', 'Chappe telegraph', or 'Napoleonic semaphore', is a system used for conveying information by means of visual signals, using towers with pivoting arms or shutters, also known as blades or paddles.
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Information is encoded by the position of the mechanical elements; it is read when the shutter is in a fixed position. They were far faster than post riders for conveying a message over long distances, but far more expensive and less private than the electrical telegraph lines which would later replace them.
The maximum distance that a pair of semaphore telegraph stations can bridge is limited by geography, weather and the availability of light; thus, in practical use, most optical telegraphs used lines of relay stations to bridge longer distances.
Each relay station would also require its complement of skilled operator-observers to convey messages back and forth across the line. The modern design of semaphores was first foreseen by the British polymath Robert Hookewho first gave a vivid and comprehensive outline of visual telegraphy in a submission to the Royal Society. His proposal which sistem de semnalizare codificat pentru marea comercială motivated by military concerns following the Battle of Vienna the preceding year was not put into practice during his lifetime.
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It was used for military and national communications until the s. Many national services adopted signaling systems different from the Chappe system.
For example, Britain and Sweden adopted systems of shuttered panels in contradiction to the Chappe brothers' săli de tranzacționare a opțiunilor binare that angled rods are more visible. In Spainthe engineer Agustín de Betancourt developed his own system which was adopted by that state.
Optical communication - Wikipedia
This system was considered by many experts in Europe better than Chappe's, even in France. These systems were popular in the late 18th to early 19th century but could not compete with the electrical telegraphand went completely out of service by Semaphore Flags is the system for conveying information at a distance by means of visual signals with hand-held flags, rods, disks, paddles, or occasionally bare or gloved hands. Information is encoded by the position of the flags, objects or arms; it is read when they are in a fixed position.
Semaphores were adopted and widely used with hand-held flags replacing the mechanical arms of shutter semaphores in the maritime world in the 19th century.
- Олвин обнаружил, что слегка дрожит -- и не от первого вечернего холодка, а от благоговения и изумления перед всем тем, что ему довелось узнать.
- Все это было чрезвычайно запутанно.
- Я даже вижу возле них названия, но они слишком тусклы, чтобы их прочесть.
- Glosar maritim - Wikipedia
- Или все это построили в переходный период, когда люди еще путешествовали, но не желали вспоминать о космосе.
They are still used during underway replenishment at sea and are acceptable for emergency communication in daylight or, using lighted wands instead of flags, at night.
The newer flag semaphore system uses two short poles with square flags, which a signaler holds in different positions to sistem de semnalizare codificat pentru marea comercială letters of the alphabet and numbers. The transmitter holds one pole in each hand, and extends each arm in one of eight possible directions.
Except for in the rest position, the flags cannot overlap. The flags are colored differently based on whether the signals are sent by sea or by land. At sea, the flags are colored red and yellow the Oscar flagswhile on land, they are white and blue the Papa flags. Flags are not required, they just make the characters more obvious. Main article: Fiber-optic communication Optical fiber is the most common type of channel for optical communications.
The transmitters in optical fiber links are generally light-emitting diodes LEDs or laser diodes. Infrared light, rather than visible light is used more commonly, because optical fibers transmit infrared wavelengths with less attenuation and dispersion. The signal encoding is typically simple intensity modulationalthough historically optical phase and frequency modulation have been demonstrated in the lab.
The need for periodic signal regeneration was largely superseded by the introduction of the erbium-doped fiber amplifierwhich extended link distances at significantly lower cost.
Dual-tone multi-frequency signaling - Wikipedia
Main articles: Signal lamp and Aviation light signals An air traffic controller holding a signal light gun that can be used to direct aircraft experiencing a radio failure Signal lamps such as Aldis lampsare visual signaling devices for optical communication typically using Morse code.
Modern signal lamps are a focused lamp which can produce a pulse of light.
Multifrequency signaling[ edit ] Prior to the development of DTMF, telephone numbers were dialed by users with a loop-disconnect LD signaling, more commonly known as pulse dialing dial pulse, DP in the U. It functions by interrupting the current in the local loop between the telephone exchange and the calling party 's telephone at a precise rate with a switch in the telephone that is operated by the rotary dial as it spins back to its rest position after having been rotated to each desired number.
In large versions this pulse is achieved by opening and closing shutters mounted in front of the lamp, either via a manually operated pressure switch or, in later versions, automatically. With hand held lamps, a concave mirror is tilted by a trigger to focus the light into pulses.
The lamps are usually equipped with some form of optical sight, and are most commonly deployed on naval vessels and also used in airport control towers with coded aviation light signals. Aviation light signals are used in the case of a radio failurean aircraft not equipped with a radio, or in the case of a hearing-impaired pilot.
Air traffic controllers have long used signal light guns to direct such aircraft. The light gun's lamp has a focused bright beam capable of emitting three different colors: red, white and green.
Dual-tone multi-frequency signaling
These colors may be flashing or steady, and provide different instructions to aircraft in flight or on the ground for example, "cleared to land" or "cleared for takeoff". Pilots can acknowledge the instructions by wiggling their plane's wings, moving their ailerons if they are on the ground, or by flashing their landing or navigation lights during night time.
Only 12 simple standardized instructions are directed at aircraft using signal light guns as the system is not utilized with Morse code.
Main article: Photophone The photophone originally given an alternate name, radiophone is a communication device which allowed for the transmission of speech on a beam of light. On June 21,Bell's assistant transmitted a wireless voice telephone message of considerable distance, from the roof of the Franklin School to the window of Bell's laboratory, some meters about ft. Of the 18 patents granted in Bell's name alone, and the 12 he shared with his collaborators, four were for the photophone, which Bell referred to as his 'greatest achievement', telling a reporter shortly before his death that the photophone was "the greatest invention [I have] ever made, greater than the telephone".
PatentApparatus for Signalling and Communicating, called Photophonewas issued in December many decades before its principles came to have practical applications.
Free-space optical communication[ edit ] Main articles: Free-space optical communication and Optical wireless communications Free-space optics FSO systems are employed for ' last mile ' telecommunications and can function over distances of several kilometers as long as there is a clear line of sight between the source and the destination, and the optical receiver can reliably decode the transmitted information. More generally, transmission of unguided optical signals is known as optical wireless communications OWC.